Having baffles spaced too closely causes a greater pressure drop because of flow redirection. Extended surfaces These are used to increase the heat transfer area when a stream has a low heat transfer coefficient. Shell diameter Standard pipe is normally used for shell diameters up to mm 24".
This makes construction much simpler. However, the outside surfaces of the tubes are inaccessible except to chemical cleaning. Fluid allocation When deciding which side to allocate the hot and cold fluids the following need to be taken into account, in order of priority.
Tube wall thickness Reference must be made to a recognized pressure vessel code to decide this. Having complied with the above, allocate the fluid likely to cause the most severe mechanical cleaning problems if any to the tubeside.
Number of tube passes This is usually one or an even number not normally greater than It also is more suitable than the A-Type Front Header for high pressure duties because the header has only one seal.
Shell and tube heat exchanger design[ edit ] There can be many variations on the shell and tube design. One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled. Again, special measures have to be taken to cope with large thermal expansions and this limits the permitted operating temperature and pressure.
E-Type shell This is most commonly used shell type, suitable for most duties and applications. However, since internal cleaning of the tubes by mechanical means is difficult, it is normal only to use this type where the tube side fluids are clean.
The main steps in the calculation are given below together with calculation methods in the open literature: J-Type shell This tends to be used when the maximum allowable pressure drop is exceeded in an E-Type Shell even when double segmental baffles are used.
A third and important difference is that plate exchangers employ more countercurrent flow rather than cross current flow, which allows lower approach temperature differences, high temperature changes, and increased efficiencies.
The triangular arrangement allows more tubes in a given space. W-Type rear header This is a packed floating tubesheet with lantern ring. Most shell-and-tube heat exchangers are either 1, 2, or 4 pass designs on the tube side.
This usually entails increasing the shell diameter, reducing the tube length and the number of tubeside passes in order to allow for the increased pressure loss characteristics of the devices. The main advantages of this type of header are that access can be gained to the inside of the tubes without having to remove any pipework and the bundle to shell clearances are small.
They run perpendicularly to the shell and hold the bundle, preventing the tubes from sagging over a long length. The tubes may be straight or bent in the shape of a U, called U-tubes. This refers to the number of times the fluid in the tubes passes through the fluid in the shell.
T-Type rear header This is a pull through floating head. N-Type rear header The advantage of this type of header is that the tubes can be accessed without disturbing the pipe work.
Considering each header and shell type in turn: The pillow plate is constructed using a thin sheet of metal spot-welded to the surface of another thicker sheet of metal. An outer, wider baffle looks like a doughnut, whilst the inner baffle is shaped like a disk. A-Type front header This type of header is easy to repair and replace.
On the other hand, their low efficiency coupled with the high space occupied in large scales, has led modern industries to use more efficient heat exchangers like shell and tube or plate. The heart of the heat exchanger contains a fully welded circular plate pack made by pressing and cutting round plates and welding them together.
Calculate the shellside heat transfer coefficient Use Bell- Delaware Method.
Consequently, having the baffles spaced too far apart means that there may be cooler spots in the corners between baffles. They are used to boil water recycled from a surface condenser into steam to drive a turbine to produce power.
P-Type rear header This is an outside packed floating rear header.Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Manufacturers and exporter in India having good experience providing solution of your heat transfer technolgy INDIA.
Basco Type Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger (visit API’s webpage). The API Basco Type Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger offers the cost effectiveness that comes with having a standard design, while easily providing for various options to meet specific customer requirements.
Contact API about Basco Type Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers and Request a Quote. The thermal design of a shell and tube exchanger is an iterative process which is normally carried out using computer programs from organizations such as the Heat transfer and Fluid Flow Service (HTFS) or Heat Transfer Research Incorporated (HTRI).
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